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What is the Difference between DNA and RNA?

Bond Formation

Among the molecules that play remarkable and indispensable roles in the body are DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid), which have been conferred with the duty of carrying genetic information of the body.

By having a CRI genetics test conducted under which both DNA and RNA are studied and analyzed, you can learn a lot about your lineage. Before that, it is essential that you have an all-encompassing knowledge of DNA and RNA, and the difference between them. It will render you with an edge of over your peer both in the terms of knowledge and when it comes to health-related matters.

Structural Differences

Structural Differences

DNA is mostly found inside the nucleus and nucleoid, and is double stranded. A, T, C, and G are the bases present in DNA which form millions of base pairs. Deoxyribose is the sugar in DNA. It comprises four types of deoxyribonucleotides which are cytosine (C), guanine (P), adenine (A), and thymine (T). Base pairing is done between A & T, and G & C. DNA poses resistant to alkali.

Unlike DNA, RNA is found in the cytoplasm and is mostly single stranded. Bases present in RNA are A, U, C, and G which form 100-5000 base pairs. Sugar present in RNA is ribose. Four types of ribonucleotides present in RNA are guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and uracil (U). Base pairing is done between A & U, and G & C. Since it does not resist alkali, it gets easily affected by the same.

Types of DNA and RNA

Types of DNA and RNA

Two types of DNA exists viz. intranuclear and extranuclear. For RNA, there are three types viz. m-RNA, r-RNA, and t-RNA. The quantity of DNA is fixed for the cells found in the nucleus while the quantity of RNA varies in cells. DNA is bound to the nucleus; hence it can’t drift away from the nucleus while m-RNA type of RNA is free to leave the cytoplasm.  DNA lives for a long time. Some RNA stays for a short period only while other stay for a longer period.

Bond Formation

Bond Formation

The C-H bond (Carbon Hydrogen) in DNA provides it with fair stability which also assists in destroying the enzymes that can affect it adversely. In the helix structure of DNA, the small grooves present act as protectors that keep the space available for enzymes as less as possible.

The O-H bond (Oxygen Hydrogen) present in RNA renders molecules with more reactivity in comparison to DNA. Since RNA is not resistant to alkali, such conditions can destroy it. Large grooves in the structure of RNA make it prone to attacks by enzymes.

The function of DNA and RNA

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DNA is more influential when it is put against RNA. DNA possesses the all the genetic data/information that is necessary for the development, performance, and functioning of the body. On the other hand, RNA is significant in the sense that it is associated with the synthesis of proteins. Also, RNA sometimes assists in the regulation of gene expression as well.

Conclusion

Although lots of research and development has been done in the realm of DNA and RNA to enhance the reliability of the information generated by their studies during CRI genetics and their significance in the mutation detection, a lot still evades the human mind and perception. Further studies and constant researches will eventually empower doctors to assist their clients better.

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